XBRL is a language for the electronic communication of business and financial data which is revolutionizing business reporting around the world. It provides major benefits in the preparation, analysis and communication of business information. It offers cost savings, greater efficiency and improved accuracy and reliability to all those involved in supplying or using financial data. XBRL stands for eXtensible Business Reporting Language. It is already being put to practical use in a number of countries and implementations of XBRL are growing rapidly around the world.
XBRL is an open, royalty-free software specification developed through a process of collaboration between accountants and technologists from all over the world. Together, they formed XBRL International which is now made up of over 650 members, which includes global companies, accounting, technology, government and financial services bodies. XBRL is and will remain an open specification based on XML that is being incorporated into many accounting and analytical software tools and applications.
XBRL offers major benefits at all stages of business reporting and analysis. The benefits are seen in automation, cost saving, faster, more reliable and more accurate handling of data, improved analysis and in better quality of information and decision-making. XBRL enables producers and consumers of financial data to switch resources away from costly manual processes, typically involving time-consuming comparison, assembly and re-entry of data. They are able to concentrate effort on analysis, aided by software which can validate and process XBRL information. XBRL is a flexible language, which is intended to support all current aspects of reporting in different countries and industries. Its extensible nature means that it can be adjusted to meet particular business requirements, even at the individual organization level.
All types of organizations can use XBRL to save costs and improve efficiency in handling business and financial information. Because XBRL is extensible and flexible, it can be adapted to a wide variety of different requirements. All participants in the financial information supply chain can benefit, whether they are preparers, transmitters or users of business data.
XBRL is set to become the standard way of recording, storing and transmitting business financial information. It is capable of use throughout the world, whatever the language of the country concerned, for a wide variety of business purposes. It will deliver major cost savings and gains in efficiency, improving processes in companies, governments and other organisations.
XBRL benefits comparability by helping to identify data which is genuinely alike and distinguishing information which is not comparable. Computers can process this information and populate both pre defined and customised reports.
No. XBRL is simply a language for information. It must accurately reflect data reported under different standards – it does not change them.
XBRL increases the usability of financial statement information. The need to re-key financial data for analytical and other purposes can be eliminated. By presenting its statements in XBRL, a company can benefit investors and other stakeholders and enhance its profile. It will also meet the requirements of regulators, lenders and others consumers of financial information, who are increasingly demanding reporting in XBRL. This will improve business relations and lead to a range of benefits.
With full adoption of XBRL, companies can automate data collection. For example, data from different company divisions with different accounting systems can be assembled quickly, cheaply and efficiently. Once data is gathered in XBRL, different types of reports using varying subsets of the data can be produced with minimum effort. A company finance division, for example, could quickly and reliably generate internal management reports, financial statements for publication, tax and other regulatory filings, as well as credit reports for lenders. Not only can data handling be automated, removing time-consuming, error-prone processes, but the data can be checked by software for accuracy.
XBRL makes the data readable, with the help of two documents – Taxonomy and instance document. Taxonomy defines the elements and their relationships based on the regulatory requirements. Using the taxonomy prescribed by the regulators, companies need to map their reports, and generate a valid XBRL instance document. The process of mapping means matching the concepts as reported by the company to the corresponding element in the taxonomy. In addition to assigning XBRL tag from taxonomy, information like unit of measurement, period of data, scale of reporting etc., needs to be included in the instance document.
There are a number of ways to create financial statements in XBRL:
• XBRL-aware accounting software products are becoming available which will support the export of data in XBRL form. These tools allow users to map charts of accounts and other structures to XBRL tags.
• Statements can be mapped into XBRL using XBRL software tools designed for this purpose
• Data from accounting databases can be extracted in XBRL format. It is not strictly necessary for an accounting software vendor to use XBRL; third party products can achieve the transformation of the data to XBRL.
• Applications can transform data in particular formats into XBRL. The route which an individual company may take will depend on its requirements and the accounting software and systems it currently uses, among other factors.
India is now an established jurisdiction of XBRL International. A separate company, under section 25 has been created, to manage the operations of XBRL India. The main objectives of XBRL India are
• To create awareness about XBRL in India
• To develop and maintain Indian Taxonomies
• To help companies, adopt and implement XBRL.
The following class of companies shall file their financial statements and other documents under section 137 of the Act with the Registrar in e-form AOC-4 XBRL as per Annexure-I:-
(i) Companies listed with stock exchanges in India and their Indian subsidiaries;
(ii) Companies having paid up capital of five crore rupees or above;
(iii) Companies having turnover of one hundred crore rupees or above;
(iv) All companies which are required to prepare their financial statements in accordance with Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015
Provided that the companies preparing their financial statements under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 shall file the statements using the Taxonomy provided in Annexure-II and companies preparing their financial statements under Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015, shall file the statements using the Taxonomy provided in Annexure-II A.
As per MCA guidelines
• all companies which were hitherto covered under the Companies (Filing of Documents and Forms in Extensible Business Reporting Language) Rules, 2011(which were require to file AOC-4 XBRL for the financial year commencing on or after 1st April 2014 using XBRL Taxonomy)
• all companies which are required to prepare their financial statements in accordance with Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015
are required to file their financial statements and other documents as per XBRL Taxonomy.
Accordingly, if a company filed its financial statements in XBRL taxonomy either under Companies Act 1956(23AC/23ACA /Other XBRL documents) or Companies Act 2013(AOC-4 XBRL or Other XBRL documents), it has to file in its financial statements and other documents as per XBRL taxonomy only irrespective of whether it satisfies the criteria in later years.
Non-banking financial companies, Housing finance companies and Companies engaged in the business of Banking and Insurance sector are exempted from filing of financial statements under these rules.
Taxonomies for Indian companies are developed based on the requirements of
• Schedule III of Companies Act
• Accounting Standards, issued by ICAI
• Indian Accounting Standards, issued by ICAI
• SEBI Listing requirements.
An XBRL document comprises the taxonomy and the instance document. Taxonomy contains description and classification of business & financial terms, while the instance document is made up of the actual facts and figures. Taxonomy and Instance document together make up the XBRL documents.
Taxonomy can be referred as an electronic dictionary of the reporting concepts. Taxonomy consists of all the data definitions, the basic XBRL properties and the interrelationships amongst the concepts. It includes terms such as net income, EPS, cash, etc. Each term has specific attributes that help define it, including label and definition and potentially references. Taxonomies may represent hundreds or even thousands of individual business reporting concepts, mathematical and definitional relationships among them, along with text labels in multiple languages, references to authoritative literature, and information about how to display each concept to a user.
Taxonomy is extended to accommodate items/relationship specific to the owner of the information. Taxonomy extension therefore can be
a) Modification in the existing relationships
b) Addition of new elements in the taxonomy
c) Combination both a & b
Yes, taxonomies are based on the regulatory requirements and standards which are to be followed by the companies. Accordingly, depending on the requirements of every country, there can be country-specific taxonomies.
An XBRL instance document is a business report in an electronic format created according to the rules of XBRL. It contains facts that are defined by the elements in the taxonomy it refers to, together with their values and an explanation of the context in which they are placed. XBRL Instances contain the reported data with their values and “contexts”. Instance document must be linked to at least one taxonomy, which defines the contexts, labels or references.
Thus, in order to concluded the usage and explain the XBRL technology which leads to more information exchanges that can be effectively automated by use. This one standard approach leads to the best interest of the company or more so for the international business interests globally that warrant the accuracy of all the financial data for the end users and early collaborative decisions by the companies or those whose interest is involved for acquisition/ rights etc.